• ... because typically two atoms of hydrogen bind together to form a single hydrogen molecule ...
  • The H atom is one proton, one electron. The electron occupies the first "shell" around the proton nucleus. It is known as a "VALENCE" electron. The 1S shell is only half filled with one electron, the energy is stable with two electrons. Therefore when another H atom is near, there is an affinity for its electron and vice versa. The 2 H protons then form a COVALENT bond , sharing the 2 electrons to become energy satisfied. For the same reason He is a monatomic gas since the 2 electrons it carries have filled the 1S shell to capacity. Valence electrons provide the basis of chemical bonding and the shell of the valence determines the strength of the bond. Hydrogen's state depends on the temperature at which you encounter it - for humans on earth it is a gas. For Jovians on Jupiter it is more abundant as a liquid.

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