• The earliest archaeological evidence of gas warfare is during the Roman–Persian wars. Research carried out on the collapsed tunnels at Dura-Europos in Syria suggests that during the siege of the town in the third century AD, the Sassanians used bitumen and sulfur crystals to get it burning.
  • Pre-history for sure. Biological warfare, too. Ancient people used to catapult dead livestock over the walls of besieged cities in order to promote disease and just generally be gross.

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