ANSWERS: 1
  • Pills "Penis enlargement pills" or ointments are commonly offered over the Internet; for the most part, are scams. At best, they promote blood flow to the penis in one way or another, temporarily resulting in a slightly larger erection. Herbal ingredients have included ginkgo biloba, a stimulant and vasodilator, and yohimbe, a sexual stimulant. While both of these ingredients may increase energy and sexual performance in the short term, neither is capable of increasing the length or size of the penis over time. Analyses performed by Flora Research of California and by the University of Maryland have uncovered harmful contaminants in a number of "penis enlargement" pills. Contaminants found included mold, yeast, dangerous E. coli bacteria, pesticides, and lead. [1] Dr. Michael Donnenberg of the University of Maryland has described herbal pills marketed by Performance Marketing Ltd. as having "heavy fecal contamination", possibly from animals grazing near the plants harvested for herbal ingredients. [2] There may however be a placebo effect i.e. a psychological effect of making the user think he has a larger penis, and increasing his confidence, when there is no actual change to his penis size. [3] [edit] Penis pump Another method which is often advertised is the penis pump. This is a cylinder that is fitted over the penis, with a manual or motorised pump to create suction. As the apparatus creates a vacuum around the penis, blood is drawn into the penis causing it to become engorged. The higher the vacuum, the higher the blood-pressure becomes within the penis; excessive pressure causes vascular damage rather than a harder penis. Penis pumps have two very different uses: They can act as valuable sexual aids for men who suffer from impotence, as they can be used to achieve an erection, which can be maintained for up to 30 minutes by the use of a compression ring on the base of the penis. These pumps, which are reputable medical devices, are usually described as vacuum pumps rather than penis pumps. It is proven that frequent use of this sort of pump may to some extent reverse impotence due to vascular damage[1]. A "Penis pump" can also be used to temporarily increase the size of the erect penis to the maximum size of which it is capable by increasing the amount of blood and other fluids that are in the corpus cavernosa and surrounding tissue. These temporary gains are well proven and abundantly documented on various "hobbyist" websites. However, their efficacy at increasing absolute penis size is very hard to determine. Some practitioners believe the overload principle which stipulates that as a part of the body is pushed past its limits the natural healing process will accommodate for the extra stress when making repairs; for example, muscles get bigger and in this case tissues lengthen and swell. Over time it is believed that regimen of pumping and or other methods will cause gains, however minor (if at all), to be realized. Pumping with either type of pump must be done carefully to avoid injury: manufacturers' instructions should be followed. Manual pumps often recommend a gentle pump followed by a pause, then repeated. Over-enthusiastic pumping can burst blood vessels and form blisters. In some cases the testicles can be unexpectedly pulled into the cylinder and cause severe pain and injury. It is also believed that the rim of the cylinder can cut into the skin and over time cause damage to the ligaments surrounding the penis. These dangers are easily avoided by following instructions. Impatiently pumping away without reading any explanatory material can produce too much suction (anything over 10 mm Hg) and cause permanent injury. Attempts at using vacuum cleaners units for this purpose have resulted in severe injury as the machine produces far too much suction. If the base unit is used without a hose there is also the danger of coming into contact with the rapidly-rotating fan. Articles in medical journals describe such cases. Penis pumps gained some popular culture notoriety in the Austin Powers films. [edit] Jelqing & Clamping Another method is known as jelqing (or jelquing). Jelqing is a technique intended to enlarge the penis by increasing the blood pressure in the penis, with the goal of permanently increasing the maximum erect size of the penis. This technique, also called "milking", involves wrapping the thumb and index finger around the penis while semi-erect and repeatedly drawing them away from one's body to force blood into the glans, thus encouraging more vascularity in the corpus cavernosa and associated tissues. Whether jelqing actually works or not is a subject of controversy. The word (and technique) is rumored to have various Arabic origins (from the word "milking"); other sources claim the technique has its roots in tribal Africa (particularly Sudan); however, still other sources claim that it was an American invention and these rumors are simply rumors or propaganda meant to sell jelqing instructions. (According to wiktionary, entering جÙ?Ù? (jelq or jalgh) returns جÙ?Ù? زدÙ? (jalgh zadan) meaning "to masturbate" in Persian. Persian and Arabic use the same basic script.) Still others maintain that this was ancient Russian tradition, practiced by midwives, and mothers for their sons early in life, as this was thought to enhance the size of the genitals. Though there is a growing body of anecdotal evidence, and just one tiny non-blind study with very few participants that seem to suggest that it works, but otherwise there are no really definitive scientific studies to support the assertion or refute that this technique works, or that it is safe. In many African and Middle eastern tribes, they have a tradition of jelqing or even stretching their penises extensively. However, it is well-known that many in these tribes are impotent and unable to get an erection as a result of these exercises. Jelqing is inherently dangerous, and even if done correctly can cause injuries, from irritated skin and burst blood vessels to scarring and impaired penile function, including partial loss of erectile function and inability to maintain an erection. It should not be attempted by anyone without a complete understanding of the risks involved. There are many products (tools, instructions, etc.) that one can buy; however, much of what they offer (instructions) is available on forums and free websites. Before beginning an enlargement regimen, one should contact someone experienced with the technique. Jelqing is typically preceded by a warmup with a hot compress on the genitals, and concluded the same way. Jelqing will often increase the size of the flaccid penis in the short-term after only a few sessions, but substantial gains to maximum erect penis size supposedly take a month or more to develop. Certain websites claim typically range in gains from .5 inches to 5 inches or more in length and .25 to 3 inches or more in girth. The upper end of the girth claims are highly suspect and the length claims represent many years of multiple enlargement techniques. However, there have been warnings that one possible cause of the growth is the presence of scar tissue caused by the exercise, which could conceivably harm penile function. A study was performed in the late 1970s by Dr Brian Richards in the UK. It was published in the British Journal of Sexual Medicine and showed increases in 87 percent of the test subjects. Increases in penis length of up to 1.4 inches and girth of up to 1 inch were recorded. [edit] Traction Another nonsurgical method to lengthen the penis is by employing devices (or one's own hands) that pull at the glans of the penis with continuous tension for extended periods of time. This is known as penis stretching or traction. If the applied tension is too large injury to the tissues or nerves of the penis can result. This is not recommended because it can forcibly tear off the vessels and other neurogical nerves thereby reducing the erectile functions of the penis. Origins of traction can be traced back to thousands of years. Many tribes in Africa still use traction to expand certain body parts such as ears, lips and necks. Many penis enlargement companies use traction as a means of expanding one's penis. Most sites claim to produce permanent results, however, hard evidence on the accuracy of this statement still does not exist. This has not been proven and like other form of exercises, can lead to impotence and severe damage to the penile tissue. [edit] Surgical methods [edit] Injection An innovation in cosmetic surgery takes fat cells from elsewhere in the body and injects them below the surface of the skin of the shaft of the penis to increase the thickness (but not length) of the penis. The penile shaft normally has little or no fat, and this method results in an unnatural appearance and feel, as well as risking radical shifting of the fat injected. A related method involves injection of liquid silicone into the penis and scrotum. This technique can cause enormous increases in the girth of the penis (increasing the penis volume by over 900%) but is effectively irreversible and may have side effects including loss of sensation, inability to perform penetrative intercourse, scarring and deformation. Injections of other substances, including collagen, mineral oil, and even KY Jelly may have similar effects, but also may cause extreme scarring and permanent disfigurement. [edit] Ligament cutting Another method is to cut the basal penile ligament, which can result in an apparent lengthening of the penis by up to two inches in some individuals. However, it also means that, while the penis elongates and hardens with an erection, it can no longer become truly erect, but only hangs. The results of this surgery vary greatly between individuals, with some subjects reporting no measurable lengthening at all. [edit] Inflatable implants A further method is to replace the two corpora cavernosa with inflatable penile implants. This is performed primarily as a therapeutic surgery for men suffering from complete impotence; an implanted pump in the groin can be manipulated by hand to fill these cylinders from an implanted reservoir in order to achieve an erection. The replacement cylinders are normally sized to be direct replacements for the corpus cavernosa, but larger ones can be implanted. However, the result is an uncomfortable stretching of the other penile tissues which can have a number of complications. [edit] Beading A practice, known as genital beading or pearling, is gaining popularity in Indonesia and southern Asia where small objects are implanted under the skin of the penis, usually close to the glans. Implants such as Steel ball bearings, plastic pellets, semi-precious stones, rings and studs are used. The reasoning for this form of augmentation is varied: some do it for supposed magical benefits, others for the pleasure of their partner, although the implant (such as a ring or stud) might be removed before intercourse. Apparently many women have found it to cause pain, discomfort, bleeding, scarring, and infection more often than pleasure.[4] [edit] Transplantation An experimental method is a complete penile transplant. With modern techniques and anti-rejection drugs, this certainly should be possible, but there has been no record of a successful attempt until very recently. An unverified report from India stated that a penis was taken from a male infant with two penes and attached to another male infant lacking a penis.[citation needed] The overwhelming drawback to this method, apart from the necessity to ever after take immunosuppression drugs, which carry numerous side effects and restrictions in lifestyle, is the unfortunate fact that, performed on an adult, there is no guarantee that significant sensation, if any, would develop in the transplanted penis. Evidence from hand transplant cases suggest that limited sensory input would be available, at best.

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