• "Scrubbers" that take the carbon dioxide out of the air.
  • Oxygen is supplied either from pressurized tanks, an oxygen generator or some sort of "oxygen canister" Oxygen is either released continuously by a computerized system that senses the percentage of oxygen in the air, or it is released in batches periodically through the day. Carbon dioxide can be removed from the air chemically using soda lime.
  • A nuclear submarine doesn't run out of oxygen simply because they have enough electrical power supplied by the nuclear propulsion system to generate what they need by electrolysis of the surrounding sea water. They also make all their own potable water as well. From there, the atmosphere control system monitors atmospheric parameters and removes CO and CO2 from the air the crew breathes.
  • Scrubbers burners and filters clean the air. Oxygen can also be stored in tanks as a gas or as a liquid but liquid oxygen is dangerous.

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