• Restraints are things a command prohibits its subordinates from doing. For example, do not damage religious shrines, archeological sites, or civilian schools. Constraints are things that may limit a commander’s freedom of action. For example, avoid damaging adjacent civilian buildings, use only precision-guided munitions to destroy key targets in the city. Restraints and constraints are included in the rules of engagement, commander’s guidance, or instructions from higher headquarters. Simply put, restraints are things the commander cannot do; constraints are the things he must do. -Marine Corps Warfighting Publication 5-1
  • A constraint is an impersonal limit on your economic activity, such as interest rates; these are sometimes indirect. A restraint is directed at your industry. Since you mention the field of economics, let me give an illustration. Say you wanted to start up a taxi firm. Constraints on your business might be the available pool of drivers, the income of the people in your area (poor people don't use cabs very often) and the weather - snow storms will result in longer times for customers to wait, due to both the longer rides each takes because of the slow traffic and the higher number of people who want a cab because they don't want to drive in that kind of weather. Restraints would be the limited number of cab licences that your city might issue, a limited number of taxi stands and any rules regarding 'cruising' for customers.

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