• resistance
  • An electron traveling through the wires and loads of the external circuit encounters resistance. Resistance is the hindrance to the flow of charge. For an electron, the journey from terminal to terminal is not a direct route. Rather, it is a zigzag path which results from countless collisions with fixed atoms within the conducting material. The longer the wire, the more resistance that there will be. There is a direct relationship between the amount of resistance encountered by charge and the length of wire it must traverse. After all, if resistance occurs as the result of collisions between charge carriers and the atoms of the wire, then there is likely to be more collisions in a longer wire. More collisions means more resistance. Second, the cross-sectional area of the wires will affect the amount of resistance. Wider wires have a greater cross-sectional area. Water will flow through a wider pipe at a higher rate than it will flow through a narrow pipe. This can be attributed to the lower amount of resistance which is present in the wider pipe. In the same manner, the wider the wire, the less resistance that there will be to the flow of electric charge. When all other variables are the same, charge will flow at higher rates through wider wires with greater cross-sectional areas than through thinner wires.
  • Thanks everyone for answering. After reviewing my physics notes ;D I got a valid answer from your explanations. Electric resistance is a material's opposition to the flow of electric current as stated by Ohm's Law. As temperature increases so does resistance. This is because the heat energy is absorbed by the metal which causes the atoms to create greater kinetic energy. This makes the atoms vibrate violently thus making the flow of current harder. The wire's thickness also influences resistance. The thinner the wire, the harder it is for electrical charges to move through the wire. They will all crowded, sort of like a traffic jam. The length also influences resistance. The shorter the wire, the shorter the distance for the current to flow; the longer the wire, the greater the distance for current to flow. In conclusion, cold, short, thick wires are better conductors than long, thin, hot wires. Cold wires means that the charges aren't vibrating making flow easier. Since the wire is short, the distance for the electric current to flow is short and can get faster. The thicker the wire, the more cross sectional area for electric charges to flow. This is why short, thick, cold wires are better conductors than long, thin, hot wires.
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