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    Papilledema is caused by an increase in the pressure of the fluid (cerebrospinal fluid) that is present between the brain and the skull, inside the head. This increase in intracranial pressure may be caused by any of a variety of conditions within the skull, brain, or spinal cord. The most common causes of papilledema are:

    • tumor of the brain, spinal cord, skull, spinal column, or optic nerve
    • abscess (the accumulation of pus within a confined space)
    • craniosynostosis (an abnormal closure of the bones of the skull)
    • hemorrhage (bleeding)
    • hydrocephalus (an accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the skull)
    • intracranial infection (any infection within the skull such as meningitis and encephalitis)
    • head injury

    The symptoms of papilledema include:

    • headaches, which are usually worse upon awakening and exacerbated by coughing, holding the breath, or other maneuvers that tend to increase intracranial pressure.
    • nausea and vomiting.
    • changes in vision, such as temporary and transient blurring, graying, flickering, or double vision

    Source: The Gale Group. Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine, 3rd ed.";

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