ANSWERS: 2
  • Each of the above could be a separate paragraph in a legal essay, with a good conclusion based on a real or hypothetical theme. Accomplishing this would probably result in a good evaluation by the reader.
  • What are "pollution rights?" I have been in politics since the late 1980s and I know of no such body of rights, (Some have made an argument that there is a right to a clean environment, but that right is not recognized in U.S. law. Rather, a clean environment is treated as a desirable public good and various laws and regulations have been imposed with an eye to preserving that good. It is not, however, a right in the sense that an individual could make a claim to it in a court of law.) 2) To which market failures are you referring? Environmental pollution is considered by economists to be an "externality," that is an unintended effect of economic growth, for example, but is not typically regarded as a market failure. Externalities are typically addressed by law, recognizing that, human beings and the institutions they create are imperfect, and that therefore certain collective costs are unavoidable. As a general rule, then, restrictions are placed on what business can do, for example, in the production and disposal of waste. If those laws are violated, the private entity is penalized, often including paying the cost of clean-up. In other instances, such costs are assumed unavoidable, or it is assumed that they are simply too high to be dealt with by a private entity - automobile exhaust, for example - and so collective costs are imposed. (Industry wide emissions restrictions which taxpayers then pay through taxes and higher fuel and auto prices.) As your statement was not ended with a question mark, I am unclear what you were asking, but so far as I can tell, you seem to postulate some erroneous premises.

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