• well if you mean covalent bonds, then the electrons - who pair up with electrons of other atoms and lock them together - are the main contributor. but keep in mind that the protons have their part to play. the protons nullify the overall charge, which is important for covalent bonds (not that a charge makes them impossible). also, the different relative amounts of protons and electrons make ion bonds possible (like in salts, for example).
  • The standard answer is the electrons, but I can't argue with Sympho.

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